Recently, the network suffered a photovoltaic plant << new trouble: 4G illegal scheme kept hidden, power loss who bears >> article widely disseminated by the photovoltaic industry technical experts, investors and other parties attention?.
Why communication power system PV power plant secondary surveillance systems so strict? What aspects of the problems of wireless communication? Power system how to properly use wireless communication? National regulations exactly how to regulate the photovoltaic plant communication? With these questions, I read the details of the relevant literature, laws and regulations.
Represented in 4G wireless communications, the power industry and the essential difference between a conventional fiber optic leased line is: dedicated fiber optic network with other physically completely isolated wireless communications do energy power is the most basic operations of each country to protect, anyway. It emphasizes the strategic significance of a stable supply of electricity can not be overemphasized, and 4G wireless communication representative, deficiencies in information security.
Wireless network is open, wide coverage, can not do with other external network physical isolation is currently on a wireless communication typically use 128-bit key encryption is breakable. Online has reported that an engineer took only two hours to crack the 3G network 128 communication encryption method hackers to remote wireless network implementation in any corner of the attack, then control the operation of the power station, and even lead to paralysis of the entire plant operation. break wireless firewall, and just want to spend much time problem, and you want to hack into the power system of fiber optic lines, physical access is an insurmountable gap, the security is quite different.
Power monitoring system security protection overall strategy is to 'secure partition, network-specific, horizontal segregation, vertical certifications' Its main contents are: a reasonable division of the security partition expansion to improve power dispatching private data networks, to take the necessary safety technology and protective equipment, stripping unproductive business, to achieve physical isolation power dispatching data network and other networks, which uses electric power fiber optic lines, which can effectively improve the power monitoring system against vandalism and attacks the ability of hackers, viruses, and other forms of malicious code.
Power system is not on the 'Disable Wireless communication' across the board, it is also open to limited 'wireless communications', but also highlights the communication system for the safe operation of the core demands.
Survey found that the current use of wireless communications in the power system mainly two places: one for data transmission secure access to stations outside the area, such as the PV plant data will be transmitted through the isolation distal to the management center, the second is with the grid does not have the power optical fiber communication conditions peripheral distribution terminals (see State grid 168 files), distributed generation and other locations scattered, small-scale small-scale power generation projects, these applications through data encryption and other measures to isolate the treatment, It can be transmitted over the wireless network.
However, these applications are one-way transmission of data, namely data transmission only by the power generating unit to dispatch a monitoring system, scheduling system does not need to control the power generating unit, it will not pose a threat to the safe operation of power generation units.
4G wireless access its convenient advantages, combined with the mobile terminal is widely used in civilian areas, but in the industrial sector, by stability, limited resources, high maintenance costs factors, even without considering the security requirements, 4G wireless is not the most excellent choice.
Due to the large area photovoltaic power plants, power plants susceptible to signal high-voltage lines, undulating terrain, bad weather and other external factors interfere, leading to unstable communication. Designed and 4G network frequency band for the public, the department currently used are civil aviation, railways, government other departments, and other power plant use there is competition, multi-industry co-exist, the interference band is large. so the signal is lost, false failures and other problems have been using wireless photovoltaic plant site appears frequently.
According to << notice of extension 1800MHz wireless access system frequency of use >> : 1785-1805MHz time division duplex (TDD) mode can be used to access the wireless network of local professionals, specific frequency assignment by the provinces and municipalities radio regulatory agency responsible for asking the public not to adjacent band interference, and requires no more than the bandwidth 5MHz. in accordance with the principle of first come first use, can only make a principle 5MHZ bandwidth, 4G private network 15MHZ bandwidth, a radius of 10KM (4G's within the coverage area) range, allows a maximum of three simultaneous users. Therefore, the number of users in the same district of 4G is very restricted.
Compared with the currently used mode optical fiber, 4G relatively high cost to 50MW power plant as an example, 4G wireless solution cost than optical fiber ring high way about one million base stations need professional maintenance, upgrade fast, usually after a few years to upgrade or replacement of equipment, and the need to implement professional manufacturers, high maintenance costs.
Enjoy the convenience of information technology at the same time, we also surly Language information warfare among energy and power monitoring and dispatching systems, information security is a top priority.
In recent years, the Chinese government outside the network average monthly number of Trojan virus infection of more than 10 million times, aspects of power system, only one company National Grid, the network is more than 2000 times the monthly attacks, internal information network to be attacked more than 20 times .
October 13, 2000, Sichuan Ertan Hydropower Plant control system receives abnormal signals stop, seven seconds off the net 890MW, Sichuan and Chongqing power grid almost collapsed in December 2003, Longquan, Zhengping, goose happened converter station virus event, the latest example of the end of 2015, due to the highly destructive malware attacks, resulting in at least three regions of Ukraine massive blackout.
According to another report, important events during the Beijing Olympic Games, Shanghai World Expo and Guangzhou Asian Games, China's electric power system on the subject from a variety of domestic and foreign high-density, high strength and penetration of malicious network attacks, in which modern warfare, for countries Yiba power monitoring system to attack as the primary target of cyber attacks to paralyze the target country's energy system. in the Kosovo war, the Iranian nuclear incident and the Gulf war, everywhere. power monitoring system security risks faced by increasing direct a threat to security and stability of power system operation and reliable supply of electricity, the national electric power system security requirements more stringent.
Based on the above background, in 2004, the former State Electricity Regulatory Commission released << secondary power system security protection regulations >> (referred to 5 orders), defined the overall strategy of the power monitoring system, in recent years, the rapid development of photovoltaic power generation, 2012, the competent authorities at least four times the introduction of national standards and relevant laws, prohibited the use of wireless communication in production control region generating unit.
I carefully reviewed the relevant national regulations and standards, related to photovoltaic power plants Communication are the following:
Note 1: The standard time for the actual approval in 2013, earlier than 14 orders Published (September 1, 2014), a clear reference to the standard five repeal Decree 14 issued Decree.
National Energy Board, former deputy director Shi Yubo A reporter asked explained in 2014, in the production control large areas set 'safe access zone' mainly on account currently using wireless public network in parts of the distribution grid, distributed power is carried out actual data communication .14 Decree Article VIII: business production control system using a wireless communication network region in the longitudinal direction of its terminal connections, power companies other data network (non-electric power dispatching data network) or external shared virtual data network private network mode (VPN) communications, etc., should be set up secure access zones.
For photovoltaic power plants, the production control region and the typical structure of secure access area as shown below. Production shown in the figure to control large areas need to use 4G wireless communication is strictly prohibited.
PV power plant production control and typical structure diagram of the Region secure access zone
Today, the photovoltaic power generation has become an important energy power, because of its low carbon environmental characteristics of PV development will more and more quickly, in energy and electricity in the proportion is increasing. Secondary surveillance system is an important power plant design one of the elements, you must consider information security from a strategic level, in line with the relevant statutory requirements in the development of photovoltaic applications, in-depth study on the correlation power system specifications, understanding the development of regulatory intent behind the standard, thus promoting photovoltaic power plant will be designed to benefit the entire healthy and sustainable development of the industry, in order to further renewable energy alternatives to pave the way.
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